“一……就……”在英语中的表达

文学网时间:2018-08-14 01:01:15

  江苏省海安县曲塘中学 汪 宁

  在英语中,有很多词语可以用来表达“一……就……”的意思,本文拟简要小结如下:

  1. as soon as

  “as soon as” 是“一……就……”最普通的表达方法,前一个“as” 是副词,后一个“as” 是连词,引导时间状语从句。

  ⑴ He got married as soon as he left university.

  他一离开大学就结婚了。

  2. directly

  “directly”可以用作连词,常用于非正式文体中,相当于“as soon as”。

  ⑵ I came directly I got your message.

  我一接到你的信就赶来了。

  3. immediately

  “immediately”可以用作连词,主要用于英国英语中,相当于“as soon as”。

  ⑶ I came immediately I heard the news.

  我一听到这个消息,马上就来了。

  4. once

  “once”用作连词,相当于“as soon as, from the moment that”,意为“一旦……就……”、“当……就……”。

  ⑷ Once he arrives we can start. 他一到我们就可以动身。

  注意①:“once”引导时间状语从句,但常常隐含条件。

  ⑸--Did you remember to give Mary the money you owed her?

  --Yes. I gave it to her ______I saw her.(2001春季高考,14)

  A.while B.the moment C.suddenly D.once

  答案:B

  分析:不少学生误选D,但“once”隐含条件,意为“一旦……就……”,该句理解成“我一旦见到他就把钱给了他”显然不符合上下文的语境,故排除D。“the moment”看似名次词组,但实际上用作连词,引导时间状语从句,故应选B。

  注意②:“once”后面的从句中常可采用省略结构。

  ⑹ Once seeing it (=Once you see it ),you can never forget it.

  Once seen ( = Once it is seen ),it can never be forgotten.

  一旦见到了就永远不会忘记。

  5. on/upon + 名词/动名次

  “on/upon”用作介词,后接名词或动名词作宾语,意为“immediately after, at the time of”。

  ⑺ On his arrival at the airport, he was greeted by the Prime Minister. 他一到达机场便受到总理的欢迎。

  ⑻ On inquiring, we found that the plane had already left.

  经询问,我们才知道飞机已经飞走了。

  6. immediately after

  “immediately after”后接名词、代词或从句,相当于“as soon as”,意为“一……就……”。

  ⑼ I came immediately after lunch. 我一吃完午饭就来了。

  ⑽ I got in touch with him immediately after I received the letter. 我一接到信就和他联系了。

  7. ① hardly…when…

  ② scarcely…when…

  ③ barely…when…

  ④ no sooner…than…

  ⑾ The game had hardly/scarcely/barely begun when it started raining. 比赛刚一开始就下起雨来了。

  ⑿ The game had no sooner begun than it started raining.

  比赛刚一开始就下起雨来了。

  注意①:在以上句型中,“hardly/scarcely/barely/no sooner”部分为主句,通常与过去完成时连用;“when/than”部分为时间状语从句,通常与一般过去时连用。

  ⒀ We had hardly started our journey when the car got a flat tyre. 我们刚出发,车胎就破了。

  注意②:如果将“hardly/scarcely/barely/no sooner”放在句首,则该主句部分必须使用倒装语序,而“when/than”从句部分语序不倒装。

  ⒁ Hardly/Scarcely/Barely had the game begun when it started raining.

  No sooner had the game begun than it started raining.

  ⒂ Hardly had we started our journey when the car got a flat tyre.

  8. ① the moment

  ② the minute

  ③ the instant

  在这些结构中,“the moment, the minute, the instant”看似名词词组,但实际上用作连词,引导时间状语从句。

  ⒃ I recognized him the moment I saw him

  我一看到他,就认出他来了。

  ⒄ She recognized the actor the minute she saw him.

  她一看到那个演员就认出他来了。

  ⒅ The instant I saw him I knew he was angry.

  我一见到他就知道他生气了。

  * * * * * * *

  主要参考书目:

  1、《Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English》

  by Randolph Quirk, Longman Group Ltd., 1995

  2、《The Advanced Learners Dictionary of Current

  English with Chinese Translation》 by A.S.Hornby,

  Oxford University Press, 1978

  3、《Practical English Usage》,Michael Swan 原著,

  外语教学与研究出版社,1982

  4、《Longman Active Study English-Chinese Dictionary》

  by Della Summers, 上海出版社,1993

  5、《英汉大词典》,陆谷孙主编 上海出版社, 1993

  6、《朗文英语语法大全》, 伦道夫.夸克等著,

  华东师范大学出版社,1998

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