小品词 “to” 的用法

文学网时间:2018-08-30 14:54:54

  

  【高考】

  小品词to是指分别用作不定式符号和介词的to。作为不定式符号,to后面接动词原形;作为介

  词,to后面接名词、代词或动词的-ing形式。高考对to的考查通常出现在单项填空、短文改错和单词拼写

  等题型中,主要包括以下几个方面的内容:

  1.不定式符号to的用与不用;

  2.to do与doing的区别;

  3.对to属性的判断。即, 是to do, 还是to doing?

  【典型例题】

  1.(2000, 单项填空)

  _______ some of this juice --- perhaps youll like it.

  A. Trying B. Try C. To try D. Have tried

  正确答案:B 根据情景,题干的前一部分为一祈使句。祈使句要求以动词原形开头,所以选B。

  2.(2000,短文改错)

  I would like very much come but I have an examination on Monday morning.

  正确答案:在come前面加to。would like后面必须接带to的不定式。

  3.(NMET99,单项填空)

  The purpose of new technologies is to make life easier, _______ it more difficult..

  A. not make B. not to make C. not D. do not make

  正确答案:B 题干部分已有to make life easier作表语,所以选B,表示对比。

  【知识点拨】

  1.后面接to do, 不接doing的动词很多,常见的有agree, appear, ask, decide, demand, expect,

  happen, hope, learn, manage, offer, prepare, pretend, promise, wish, should like/love,

  would like/love, etc..

  例如:I would like to have a talk with you.

  2.want, need, require等动词与to do或doing连用的问题,已在上一讲中谈到,不在赘述;

  3.需要接带to的不定式作宾补的动词主要有advise, allow, ask, beg, expect, get, like, order,

  permit, tell, want, warn, wish, should like/love, would like/love, etc..

  例如:I would like you to go with me.

  4.需要接不带to的不定式作宾补的动词,中学阶段有11个,必须牢记在心。它们是:see, notice,

  observe, watch, look at, have, let, make, hear, listen to, feel

  例如:I felt someone enter and then leave the room.

  5.第4条中的11个动词如果用于被动句,作主补的不定式必须加to (let有时有例外);

  例如:He is made to do a lot of exercises by his parents every day.

  6.祈使句中的动词,情态动词或助动词之后的动词,以及紧接在why和why not之后的动词都必须用原

  形,不能加to;

  例如:Why not go and ask the teacher for some advice?

  Why dont you go and ask the teacher for some advice?

  7.在had better/best, would rather/sooner, would rather/sooner ... than, cannot

  (help/choose) but, do nothing but, have nothing to do but等结构后面必须接动词原形,不能加to;

  例如:Yesterday evening, I did nothing/had nothing to do but watch TV.

  比较:I had no choice but to wait for Mother outside the house, for I had lost the key.

  8.go on, stop, remember, forget, regret, try等动词后面接to do和doing意思不同;

  例如:--- I tried to persuade him but iled.

  ---Why not try talking with his parents?

  9.to do作状语主要表目的、结果、原因(用于形容词之后)等;doing作状语主要表方式、原因、时

  间等;

  10.通常只接doing, 不接to do作宾语的动词和习语主要有admit, advise, appreciate, avoid,

  be busy, be worth, cant help, cant stand, consider, delay, enjoy, escape, excuse, finish,

  forbid, give up, imagine, keep, mind, miss, pardon, permit, practise, put off, suggest,

  etc..

  例如:The teacher suggested (our) going there on foot.

  =The teacher suggested that we (should) go there on foot.

  11.包含介词to的短语动词常用的有be/become/get used to, devote ... to, get down to,

  look forward to, lead to, stick to, listen to, prefer ... to, 等。(这种结构并不一定都可以接

  动词的-ing形式,但都可以接名词和代词作宾语。)

  例如:I prefer staying at home watching TV to going to the cinema.

  比较:I prefer to stay at home watching TV rather than go to the cinema.

  12.口语中,不定式符号to有时单独使用,而省略其后的动词。如Id love/like to, I used to, etc..

  例如:He will go there if he is asked to.

  ---Will you go there with us?

  ---I prefer not to.

  He says he will go if he has got a chance/the time (to).

  【知识过关】

  1. I would love _______ to the party last night but I had to work extra hours to finish a

  report.

  A. to go B. to have gone C. going D. having gone

  2. The patient was warned _______ any food after the operation..

  A. to eat not B. eating not C. not to eat D. not eating

  3. The boy wanted to ride his bicycle in the street, but his mother told him _______.

  A. not to B. not to do C. not do it D. do not to

  4. ---You were brave enough to raise objections at the meeting.

   ---Well, now I regret _______ that.

  A. to do B. to be doing C. to have done D. having done

  5. Paul doesnt have to be made _______. He always works hard

  A. learn B. to learn C. learned D. learning

  6. Rather than _______ on a crowded bus, he always prefers _______ a bicycle.

  A. ride; ride B. riding; ride C. ride; to ride D. to ride; riding

  7. ---I usually go there by train

   ---Why not _______ by boat for a change?

  A. to try going B. trying to go C. to try and go D. try going

  8. I look forward to hear from you soon. (改错)

  9. I had always wanted return to the village after moving away. (改错)

  10. The World Health Organization and other organizations are working improve health all

  over the world. (改错)

  正确答案:1. B2. C3. A4. D5. B6. C7. D8. hear改为hearing

  9. wanted后面加to10. working后面加to

  

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