高一英语第一单元知识点讲练(译林版高一英语必修一教案教学设计)

文学网时间:2018-08-08 08:55:43

  本单元的中心话题是校园生活,语言技能和语言知识也都是围绕校园生活这一中心话题设计的。Welcome to the unit版块介绍了英国校园生活的四个方面,引出话题,让学生对中国中学校园生活和英国中学校园生活进行比较,通过Reading和阅读,来提高学生略读(skimming)和搜读(scanning)两个方面的阅读能力。Word power版块强化了校园设施、活动器材等方面词汇的学习。在Grammar and usage版块中,学习定语从句的基本概念,关系代词和关系副词的功能,并重点学习关系代词that, which, who, whom 及whose的用法。接下来的Task版块主要介绍了校园的一些活动,在了解这些活动的同时,来听、说、读、写几个方面的技能,让学生学会如何谈论校园活动以及写一份举办某一活动的通知。在Project部分,通过学习两篇介绍关于学校俱乐部的文章,学会设计一份关于创办一个新校园俱乐部的海报。学生通过本单元后面的Self-assessment版块,来对本单元所学各个项目进行评价,为下一步学习制定行动计划。

  本单元要求掌握的词汇和短语主要有:attend, earn, respect, achieve, grade, literature, average, challenging, lunchtime, e-mail, extra, cooking, prepare, drop, woodwork, miss, dessert, field, experience, article, penfriend, introduce, immediately, former, recently, culture, develop, photograph, donate, gift, display, kindness, guest, speech, flat, bookcase, attention, please, title, dynasty, cover, recent, professor, regret, inform, run, host, approve, broadcast, preparation, close, outing, continue, poet, generation, poem, select, require, scary, nature, for free, pay attention to, make preparations for 。语法项目主要掌握定语从句的基本概念、关系代词和关系副词的基本功能以及关系代词that, which, who, whom及whose的用法。

  1. Going to a British school for one year has been a very enjoyable and exciting experience for me.

  此句中going to a British school for one year为动名词短语,做句子的主语。如:

  Playing with fire is dangerous. 玩火很。

  有时可用形式主语it,而将动名词短语放在后面。如:

  It’s no use arguing with him. 同他争论是没用的。

  2. He also told us that the best way to earn respect from the school was to work hard and achieve high grades.

  此句中不定式短语to earn respect是 way的后置定语,修饰way。如:

  There is nothing to worry about.没什么可担心的。

  I have something to tell you. 我有事要告诉你。

  I have a pen to write with.我有一支可写字的钢笔。

  way作“方式,方法”讲时,其后常跟to do sth.或of doing sth.作定语,两种形式基本相同。 如:

  I had no way to get in touch with him.我无法跟他取得联系。

  Soon he got used to the American ways of doing things.不久他就习惯了美国式的做法。

  此句中另一个不定式短语to work hard and achieve high grades作 that引导的宾语从句中的表语。如:

  His job is to water the flowers. 他的工作就是浇花。

  To see is to believe.。

  3. Though it didn’t look like a table when it was finished, I still liked it very much.

  此句为though引导的让步状语从句,意为“虽然,尽管”,用法同although,引导的从句既可放在主句之前,又可放在主句之后,注意主句不能再用but引导。如:

  We went out, though it was raining.虽然下着雨,我们仍然出去了。

  Though they are poor, they buy a great many books.尽管他们穷,他们还是买许多书。

  though从句的动词如果与主句为同一动词,则有时可省略主语与动词。如:

  He was happy, though poor.他虽然穷,却很快乐。

  though有时可用作副词,意为“可是,但是”,通常置于句尾或插入句中。如:

  It was hard work; I enjoyed it,though.那工作很辛苦,但是我却喜欢。

  There’s no excuse, though, for hurting her feelings.伤到她的感情一事,还是不可原谅。

  4. This is about the average size for British schools.

  此句中的average为形容词,意为“平均的,一般的”,如:the average age emperature,平均年龄气温。另外,average还可用作名词,意为“平均数,平均水平”,常见的短语有: an average of…平均(有)…;on (the) average平均,一般说来;aboveelow (the) average在平均水平以上以下

  5. Going to a British school for one year has been a very enjoyable and exciting experience for me.

  I was very lucky to experience this different way of life.

  第一句中的experience为可数名词,意为“经历”。如:

  Our journey by camel was quite an experience.我们骑骆驼旅行真是一次令人难忘的经历。 He will make a speech about his experiences in China. 他将做一个,讲述他在中国的经历。

  当experience作“经验”讲时,通常用作不可数名词。如:

  He has a lot of teaching experience.他有许多教学经验。

  第二句中的experience用作动词,意为“经历,感受”。如:

  Have you ever experienced real hunger?你体验过真正的饥饿吗?

  He experienced many difficulties during his study in Britain.在英国学习时,他经历过许多困难。

  experienced为形容词形式,意为“有经验的”,常构成的短语有: an experienced doctor 一个有经验的医生;be experienced inat 对…有经验。

  6. She seems to be a person who can’t pay attention to one thing for long.

  此句中的pay attention to 意为“注意”,其中的to为介词。如:

  He didn’t pay attention to me. =He paid no attention to me. 他没有注意到我。

  Too much attention was paid to the details.太过于注意细节了。

  attention常构成的短语还有:attractdrawcatch one’s attention吸引某人的注意力;

  focus one’s attention on集中注意力于…; turn one’s attention to将注意力转向…。

  7. We regret to inform you that our library will be closed next Wednesday, Tuesday and Friday for the sports meeting.

  此句中的regret为动词,意为“遗憾,抱歉”,常用结构有: regret to say tell you inform you that…或regret that…。如:

  I regret to tell you that I can’t come today.=I regret that I can’t come today.我很遗憾今天不能来了。

  当regret作“后悔”讲时,常说 regret sth.egret (not) doing sth.egret that…。如;

  He regretted his carelessness.他对自己的粗心大意感到懊悔。

  =He regretted having been careless.

  =He regretted that he had been careless.

  另外,regret还可用作名词,意为“遗憾,后悔”,常用短语有: without regret 没有后悔;feel regret感到后悔;to one’s regret(对某人而言)可惜的是…。

  8. Cooking was really fun as I learned how to buy, prepare and cook food.

  During exam time we have a special programme that tells students the things they should or shouldn’t do for preparation.

  第一句中的prepare为及物动词,意为“准备”, prepare sth.意思是“准备某事,做某事”。另外,prepare还可用作不及物动词,prepare for sth.意思是“为…做准备”。

  When I got home, mother was preparing supper.当我到家时,母亲正在做晚饭。

  People are busy preparing for the new year.人们正在忙着为新年做好准备。

  短语be prepared for 意为“为…做好准备”,意思同be ready for ,强调一种状态。如;We are well prepared for the exam now. 现在我们已为考试做好了充分的准备。

  第二句中的preparation是prepare的名词形式,常见的短语有:make preparations for为…做准备(意思同prepare for,其中preparations常用复数形式); in preparation在准备中; in preparation for作为…的准备。

  9. I was required to write a poem and I had to read it out to group.

  此句中的require用作动词,意为“要求“,常用作 require sb.to do sth.或require that sb. (should) do sth.,意思是“要求某人做某事”。如:

  He required me to attend the meeting.他要求我参加会议。

  =I was required to attend the meeting.

  =He required that I (should) attend the meeting.

  另外,require 还可做“需要”讲,意思和用法跟need相似,常用作 require sth.或

  require + v-ing ,意思是“需要(被)…”。如:

  This suggestion requires careful thought.这条需要仔细考虑。

  This wall requires repairing.这面墙需要修理。

  10. First of all, let me introduce myself to you.

  此句中的introduce是动词,意为“介绍”,常用在introduce sb.( to sb.)结构中,意思是“(向某人)介绍某人”。如:

  May I introduce my friend George to you? 向你介绍我的朋友乔治好吗?

  introduce也可作“引进”讲,常用在introduce sth. into o some place结构中,意思是“把某物引进到某地来”。如:

  New Paris shions are introduced into Shanghai every year. 巴黎的新流行式样每年都被引进到上海。

  另外,还可作“引导初学者认识…”讲,常用在introduce sb. to sth.结构中。如:

  The teacher introduced his young pupils to computer science. 这位老师引导他的学生了解计算机科学。

  教你一招: 何时只用关系代词that?

  that和which在指物的情况下一般都可以互换, 但在下列情况下, 一般用that而不用which。

  ①当先行词为all, much, little, few, none, something, anything, everything, nothing等不定代词时,如:

  a. All that can be done has been done.

  b. I am sure she has something (that) you can borrow.

  c. There is little (that) the enemy can do besides surrender

  ② 先行词被all, every, no, some, any, little, much修饰时。

  I’ve read all the books that are not mine.

  ③先行词是序数词或形容词最高级修饰时。

  This is the best book (that) I’ve ever read.

  This is the first composition (that) he has written in English.

  ④先行词被the only, the very, the last 修饰时。

  That white flower is the only one (that) I really like.

  This is the very book (that) I have been looking for.

  ⑤ 当有两个或两个以上分别表示人和物的先行词时,这个定语从句要用that而不用who (whom)和which引导。如:

  He talked about the teachers and schools (that) he had visited.

  ⑥以who, which, what 开头的疑问句,定语从句用that而不用who, (whom)和which引导。

  Who is the person that is standing at the gate?

  Which of us that knows something about physics does not know this?

  What that is on the table belongs to me?

  ⑦ 当关系代词在从句中作表语时。

  Mary is no longer the girl (that) she used to be.

  巩固:

  1. All ________ is useful to us is good.

  A. which B. what C. that D. whether

  2. This is the very ctory ________we visited last year.

  A. that B. which C. what D. the one

  3. The text is one of the most interesting stories ________ learnt in the past three days.

  A. that have B. that have been C. which has D. which has been

  4. This is the only thing ________ I can do now.

  A. what B. which C. that D. all

  5. I saw the boy and his dog ________ were walking in the park.

  A. which B. that C. who D. whom

  6. Which is the book ________ you borrowed from the library.

  A. which B. what C. whom D. that

  7. China is no longer the country ________ it used to be.

  A.what B.which C. who D. that

  巩固参考答案:(CABCBDD)

  单元知识点专项:

  I. 单词拼写(根据首字母提示写出该单词的适当形式):

  1. They had a quiet wedding(婚礼) - only a few friends a_______ it.

  2. As students, we should show r_______ for our teachers.

  3. Mary is interested in the classical (古典的) l_______ of France.

  4. Department stores d_______ their goods in the windows.

  5. The boy is brave enough to accept the c_______ job.

  6. Before Christmas, the bus company provided e_______ buses because there were so many people.

  7. I knew there were problems, but I was not p_______ for this.

  8. He had many interesting e_______ while traveling in Africa.

  9. Keeping a p_______ is a good way of practising your writing.

  10. The headmaster i_______ a new teacher to the students yesterday morning.

  11. I haven’t seen her r_______ and I don’t know how she is getting along with her book.

  12. Your garden looks so beautiful! May I take a p_______ of it?

  13. The White House didn’t a_______ the plan until recently.

  14. The football game was b_______ on TV and millions of people watched it.

  15. This custom (风俗) has been handed down from one g_______ to another.

  II. 单项选择:

  1. Have you seen the mous writer ________?

  A. that our teacher told B. who our teacher told you

  C. our teacher told you of D. our teacher told you of him

  2. Much attention should ________ science and technology.

  A. pay to develop B. pay to developing

  C. be paid to develop D. be paid to developing

  3. What they are doing is ________ some money.

  A. more than donating B. much than to donate

  C. more than to donate D. much than donating

  4. David thought a while and then decided to ________ the meeting.

  A. attend to B. join C. take part in D. attend

  5. I never feel ________ in his company.

  A. easily B. at ease C. comfortably D. pleasing

  6. English is spoken as the native language in countries ________ Britain, the USA, Canada and Australia.

  A. for example B. as C. like D. in other words

  7. His health was getting worse and he regretted _______ his doctor’s advice. A. not to have taken B. not having taken

  C. to have not taken D. having not taken

  8. All the students ________ three tests in English literature.

  A. require to take B. require taking C. are required to take D. are required taking

  9. Beijing, ________ the 2008 Olympic Games, calls on all its citizens to learn English.

  A. are preparing for hosting B. are prepared to host C. are prepared for hosting D. preparing for hosting

  10. The purpose of new technologies is to make life easier, ________ it more difficult.

  A. to make B. not to make C. not D. do not make

  11. I expect you are right - I’ll ask him, _______.

  A. though B. although C. as though D. even though

  12. – What do you think made him so upset?

  –________.

  A. He lost his new bike. B. Because he lost his new bike. C. Having lost his new bike. D. Because of losing his new bike.

  13. Mr. Green knows how to deal with children well. He has ________ in a primary school.

  A. ten years’ experience in teaching B. ten years’ experiences in teaching C. ten years’ experience to teach D. ten years’ experiences to teach

  14. The mother ________ her daughter’s safe arrival.

  A. informed of B. was informed on C. informed on D. was informed of

  15. What do you think of the way ________ this problem.

  A. he thought of solving B. that he thought to solve C. he thought of to solve D. which he thought solving

  III. 句型转换(每空一词,注意保持句意一致):

  1. While in Britain, he became interested in teaching Chinese to English students.

  When he was in Britain, he ______ ______ ______ ______ teaching Chinese to English.

  2. Students at that school can give up some subjects if they don’t like them.

  Students at that school can ______ some subjects ______ they don’t like.

  3. I usually went to the computer club at lunchtime, so I could get in touch with my friends by e-mail without paying any money.

  I usually went to the computer club at lunchtime, so I could ______my friends ______ ______.

  4. Tom is six years old this year and old enough to go to school.

  Tom is six years old this year and old enough to ______ ______.

  5. An average of 20 students went abroad to go on with their English studies in this school

  each year from 1998 to 2004.

  ______ ______, there were 20 students who went abroad to ______ their English studies in this school from 1998 to 2004.

  6. John used to be a lazy boy, but now he isn’t.

  John is ______ ______ the lazy boy ______ he used to be.

  7. Mary has a very good friend, but I can’t remember her name.

  Mary has a ______ friend ______ ______ I can’t remember.

  8. As soon as he finished his studies, he started traveling in China.

  ______ ______ his studies, he started traveling in China.

  9. When David returned to Britain 2 months ago, he brought many books back from China and gave them to his school library for free.

  When David returned to Britain 2 months ago, he ______ the books ______ he brought back from China ______ his school library.

  10. After the journey his clothes looked so dirty and needed to be washed.

  After the journey his clothes looked so dirty and ______ ______.

  11. When you rang me up last Friday, I was busy preparing for traveling to China with my parents.

  When you rang me up last Friday, I was busy ______ ______ ______ traveling to China with my parents.

  12. Each day our canteen serves three meals, and you can also buy soft drinks during break times.

  Each day our canteen serves three meals, and soft drinks ______ also ______.

  IV. 单句改错:

  1. The teacher brought in a boy and introduced him for us. ________

  2. That morning I got up an hour later than usually as I had no classes. ________

  3. The homework here is not as heavy as I was used to get in my old school. ________

  4. Man can’t go against the nature without being punished. ________

  5. The boy who you saw him at the school gate was from the UK. ________

  6. This is the most interesting book which I have ever read. ________

  7. Father was sitting on the so at ease while mother was preparing for lunch. ________

  8. More equipments has been introduced into our school since last year. ________

  9. Though the mily was very poor, but the parents wanted their daughter to continue her studies. ________

  10. Mary is the only one of the girls who were invited to the party last Sunday.

  V. 根据所给单词或短语完成句子:

  1. 每周一早晨,所有同学都被要求参加.(require, attend)

  2. 最后他通过努力工作达到了目标.(achieve one’s goal)

  3. 我没花钱从别人手里拿到了这张票,他不想要.(for free)

  4. 谁被选中来朗读这篇课文的?(select)

  5. 对于如何经营商店,他一无所知.(run)

  6. 这个孩子从未受过.(experience)

  单元知识点专项参考答案:

  I. 单词拼写:

  II. 单项选择:

  1---5.CDADB 6---10.CBCDB 11---15.ACADC

  III. 句型转换

  1.developed an interest in 2.drop, that 3.e-mail, for free 4.attend school 5.On average , continue 6.no longer, that 7.close, whose name 8.UponOn finishing 9.donated, which hat, to 10.requiredeeded washing 11. preparations for 12.are, available

  IV. 单句改错:

  1.for改为ally改为usual 3.去掉was 4.去掉the 5.去掉him 6.去掉which 或把which 改为that 7.去掉for 8.equipments改为equipment 9.去掉but 10.were 改为was

  V. 根据所给单词或短语完成句子:

  1. Every Monday morning, all the students are required to attend assembly.

  2. Finally he achieved his goal by working hard.

  3. I got this ticket for free from somebody who didn’t want it.

  4. Who has been selected to read out this text?

  5. He knows nothing about how to run a shop.

  6. This child has never experienced kindness.

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